At least 70 dissidents including members of the the Ladies in White, a prominent group of wives and family members of jailed political opponents to the Cuban government, have been arrested by Cuban authorities in an effort to prevent demonstrations during the visit of Pope Benedict XVI, opposition organizations say.
The Cuban Human Rights and National Reconciliation Commission, a dissident organization, claimed that the arrests occurred in the city of Santiago de Cuba, the island's second city. Santiago is the home of the Virgin of Charity of Cobre, a tiny wooden statue that is revered by Cubans, where the pope is due to arrive on Monday.
The pope will celebrate an open-air Mass Monday evening in Santiago's main plaza then pray at the sanctuary housing the statue Tuesday before heading to Havana, where he will meet with Cuban President Raúl Castro — and presumably his brother Fidel.
Benedict's three-day stay in Cuba will of course spark comparisons to Pope John Paul II's historic 1998 tour, when Fidel Castro shed his army fatigues for a suit and tie to greet the pope at Havana's airport and where John Paul uttered the now famous words: "May Cuba, with all its magnificent potential, open itself up to the world, and may the world open itself up to Cuba."
Those comparisons were also evident in Mexico, the first leg of the papal visit to the New World, which had claimed John Paul as its own during his five visits over a nearly 27-year pontificate. But with his first visit to Mexico, Benedict appeared to lay to rest the impression that he is a distant, cold pontiff who can never compare to the charisma and personal connection forged by his predecessor.
"Some young people rejected the pope, saying he has an angry face. But now they see him like a grandfather," said Cristian Roberto Cerda Reynoso, 17, a seminarian from Leon who attended Benedict's Sunday Mass. "I see the youth filled with excitement and enthusiasm."
Benedict charmed the crowd at Mass and his popemobile tour through the estimated 350,000 people. He was serenaded by a mariachi band as he returned to the school where he has been staying.
"We saw a lot of happiness in his face. We are used to seeing him with a harder appearance, but this time he looked happier, smiling," said Esther Villegas, a 36-year-old cosmetics vendor. "A lot of people didn't care for him enough before, but now he has won us over."
The feeling was mutual.
"I've made a lot of trips, but I've never been welcomed with such enthusiasm," Benedict told a wildly cheering crowd who greeted him late Sunday. "Now I can understand why Pope John Paul II used to say, 'I feel like I'm a Mexican pope.'"
Benedict leaves behind Mexico and arrives in Cuba hoping to inspire the same outpouring of faith on the communist-run island that he did in Mexico's conservative Catholic heartland.
While Cubans eagerly awaited Benedict's arrival, the political overtones on the second leg of his trip were far greater than what he encountered in Mexico.
Cuba's single-party, Communist government never outlawed religion, but it expelled priests and closed religious schools upon Fidel Castro's takeover of Cuba in 1959. Tensions eased in the early 1990s when the government removed references to atheism in the constitution and let believers of all faiths join the Communist Party.
John Paul's 1998 visit further warmed relations.
But problems remain. Despite years of lobbying, the church has virtually no access to state-run radio or television, is not allowed to administer schools, and has not been granted permission to build new places of worship. The island of 11.2 million people has just 361 priests. Before 1959 there were 700 priests for a population of 6 million.
The Catholic Church, however, is now the most influential independent institution in the country, thanks in no small part to Cardinal Jaime Ortega, the archbishop of Havana. He has negotiated with Raúl Castro for the release of political prisoners, given the government advice on economic policy and allowed church magazines to publish increasingly frank articles about the need for change.
The Vatican has said the pope has no plans to meet with the dissidents. More certain but still unconfirmed is a meeting with Fidel Castro. And a new wildcard entered into play with the arrival Saturday of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, who is getting radiation therapy for his cancer.
The Vatican spokesman, the Rev. Federico Lombardi, was asked Sunday about reports the pope might meet with Chávez while in Cuba. Lombardi said that as of Sunday morning, there were no such plans.
Associated Press writer Nicole Winfield reported this story in Leon and Michael Weissenstein reported in Silao. AP writers Adriana Gómez Licon in Guanajuato and E. Eduardo Castillo in León contributed to this report.