"Dos miradas al fascismo" (Two Views of Fascism) opened on Wednesday at the museum, offering visitors a total of 274 works.
A work that stands out is Rivera's 1956 painting "El refugio de Hitler, ruinas de la Cancilleria de Berlin."
The exhibition also features fascist and anti-fascist documents, posters, etchings, books and other items collected over four decades by Carlos Monsivais, who died in June 2010.
The exhibition is an artistic-documentary collection that "marks the crossroads between national history and world history in those years," curator Rafael Barajas said.
The show's goal is to "remember the journalistic and intellectual debate about this issue, which was very intense at that time" in Mexico, Barajas said.
Diego Rivera (1886-1957) completed his painting after visiting Berlin, where he got a firsthand look at the devastation of World War II.
Monsivais, considered one of Mexico's greatest essayists, put together a collection of objects designed to show what the post-war period was like and how it was viewed in Mexico, Barajas said.
The exhibition also includes, among other works, "Victoria del ejercito rojo sobre los nazis, 25 de Noviembre de 1943" and "El gran calcinador, ca. 1935" by Andres Audiffred (1895-1958) and a lithograph by Leopoldo Mendez (1902-1969) called "A las puertas de Madrid (1938)."